Toxics: Curse to Birds
As Editor-in-Chief, it is my distinct honour and privilege to welcome you to Our Journal of Environmental and Toxicology Studies.
The Journal of Environmental and Toxicology Studies aims to spread knowledge and promote discussion through the publication of peer-reviewed, high quality research papers on all topics related to EcoToxicology. The open access journal is published by Insight Medical Publishing who hosts open access peer-reviewed journals as well as organizes conferences that hosts the work of researchers in a manner that exemplifies the highest standards in research integrity.
Use of pesticides, in modern agriculture and vector-borne disease control, has increased tremendously. Pesticides affect the human, environment and wildlife including birds. Three main groups of chemical synthetic pesticides are organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamate. Because of persistent nature, organochlorines are no longer in use in several countries. But some of them like aldrin, dieldrin, lindane and endosulfan are still in use in developing countries. Most organochlorine inhibits Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) receptor in brain and affects the central nervous system. They cause widespread population decline of raptorial birds like the peregrine falcon, the sparrow hawk and bald eagle. The well-known effect of DDT (dithio dimethyl trichloroethane) in eggshell thinning of the peregrine falcon is caused by its highly persistent metabolite DDE [1,1 , bis-4- chlorphenyl)- 2,2 dichlorethylene]. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides do not bioaccumulate in the food chains and are less persistent. They have replaced the more persistent organochlorines. Organophosphates like chlorpyrifos and carbamates like aldicarb and carbaryl severely affects birds. Worldwide, hundreds of incidents of OP and CM induced bird poisoning are reported. Both OP and CM inhibit the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase and in acute poisoning 50-70% inhibition occurs. Sub lethal effects of these pesticides are endocrine disruption, alterations in feeding behavior and compromised immune systems which affect avian reproduction. Critical bird habitat is affected by pesticide use. Pesticides cause the local extinction, behavioral changes, loss of safe habitat and population decline in several birds. Use of potential lethal pesticides should be restricted .A toxic regime must be established within the Protected Areas. Policy issues should be strict to save the natural resources.
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Environmental and Toxicology Studies Journal